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Robert E. Keane, Diana F. Tomback, Michael P. Murray, Cyndi M. Smith
Year Published:

Cataloging Information

Fire Ecology
Insects & Disease
Fire & Bark Beetles
Fire & Wildlife
Mountain pine beetles
Management Approaches
Recovery after fire
Alpine forest/krummholz, Subalpine wet spruce-fir forest, Subalpine dry spruce-fir forest

NRFSN number: 11894
FRAMES RCS number: 13768
Record updated:

High elevation five-needle pines are rapidly declining throughout North America. The six species, whitebark (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), limber (P. flexilis James), southwestern white (P. strobiformis Engelm.), foxtail (P. balfouriana Grev. & Balf.), Great Basin bristlecone (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey), and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.), have limited timber value but are of great ecological and symbolic importance to both the U.S. and Canadian West. A comprehensive International symposium, called the High Five symposium, was held June 28-30, 2010, in Missoula, Montana to: (1) bring together scientists, managers, and concerned citizens to exchange information on the ecology, threats, and management of these pines; (2) learn about the threats and current status of pine populations; (3) describe efforts to mitigate threats through restoration techniques and action plans; and, (4) build a foundation for the synthesis of research efforts and management approaches. These proceedings present reports of some of the presentations given at the conference in the form of abstracts, extended abstracts, papers, and plenary papers in the areas of ecology, disturbance dynamics, genetics, climate change, and restoration techniques.


Keane, Robert E.; Tomback, Diana F.; Murray, Michael P.; Smith, Cyndi M., eds. 2011. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium. 2010 June 28-30; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-63. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 376 p.