John S. Cuddy, Joseph A. Sol, Walter S. Hailes, Brent Ruby
Year Published:

Cataloging Information

Human Dimensions of Fire Management
Human Factors of Firefighter Safety
Wildland Firefighter Health

FRAMES RCS Number: 23380
Record updated: November 29, 2022
NRFSN number: 19589

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of self-selected work activity on energy expenditure, water turnover, and thermal strain during wildland fire suppression. A secondary aim was to contrast current data with data collected 15 years ago using similar methods to determine whether job demands have changed.

METHODS:Participants (n=15, 26±3 years, 179±6 cm, 78.3±8.6 kg) were monitored for 3 days for total energy expenditure, water turnover, core and chest skin temperature, physical activity, and heart rate. Participants arrived to the mobile laboratory each morning, submitted a nude weight, ingested a temperature transmitter, provided a urine sample, and were equipped with a physiological and activity monitor. Participants completed live wildland fire suppression during their work shifts.

RESULTS: Mean core temperature was 37.6°±0.2°C, mean chest skin temperature was 34.1°±1.0°C, mean heart rate was 112±13 beats/min, and the mean physiological strain index score was 3.3±1.0. Wildland firefighters spent 49±8%, 39±6%, and 12±2% in the sedentary, light, and moderate-vigorous intensity categories, respectively. The mean total energy expenditure was 19.1±3.9 MJ/d, similar to 1997 (17.5±6.9 MJ/d). The mean water turnover in 2012 was 9.5±1.7 L/d, which was higher (P<.05) compared with 1997-98 (7.0±1.7 L/d).

CONCLUSIONS: Wildland firefighters do not induce consistently high cardiovascular and thermal strain while completing arduous work in a hot environment despite fairly high chest skin temperatures. The total energy expenditure in the current study suggests job demands are similar to those of 15 years ago, while the increased water turnover may reflect a change in drinking habits.


Cuddy, John S.; Sol, Joseph A.; Hailes, Walter S.; Ruby, Brent C. 2015. Work patterns dictate energy demands and thermal strain during wildland firefighting. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 26(2):221-226. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2014.12.010

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