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Debora Voltolina, Giacomo Cappellini, Tiziana Apuani, Simone Sterlacchini
Year Published:

Cataloging Information

Fire Behavior
Simulation Modeling

NRFSN number: 26405
Record updated:


Euro–Mediterranean regions are expected to undergo a climate-induced exacerbation of fire activity in the upcoming decades. Reliable predictions of fire behaviour represent an essential instrument for planning and optimising fire management actions and strategies.


The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the performance of an agent-based spatial simulation model for predicting wildland surface fire spread and growth.


The model integrates Rothermel’s equations to obtain fire spread metrics and uses a hybrid raster–vector implementation to predict patterns of fire growth. The model performance is evaluated in quantitative terms of spatiotemporal agreement between predicted patterns of fire growth and reference patterns, under both ideal and real-world environmental conditions, using case studies in Sardinia, Italy.

Key results

Predicted patterns of fire growth demonstrate negligible distortions under ideal conditions when compared with circular or elliptical reference patterns. In real-world heterogeneous conditions, a substantial agreement between observed and predicted patterns is achieved, resulting in a similarity coefficient of up to 0.76.


Outcomes suggest that the model exhibits promising performance with low computational requirements.


Assuming that parametric uncertainty is effectively managed and a rigorous validation encompassing additional case studies from Euro–Mediterranean regions is conducted, the model has the potential to provide a valuable contribution to operational fire management applications.


Voltolina D, Cappellini G, Apuani T, and Sterlacchini S. 2024. Pyros: a raster–vector spatial simulation model for predicting wildland surface fire spread and growth. International Journal of Wildland Fire 33. WF22142

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