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Jean-Baptiste Filippi, Vivien Mallet, Bahaa Nader
Year Published:

Cataloging Information

Fire Behavior
Data Evaluation or Data Analysis for Fire Modeling
Simulation Modeling

NRFSN number: 12390
FRAMES RCS number: 16588
Record updated:

This paper provides a formal mathematical representation of a wildfire simulation, reviews the most common scoring methods using this formalism, and proposes new methods that are explicitly designed to evaluate a forest fire simulation from ignition to extinction. These scoring or agreement methods are tested with synthetic cases in order to expose strengths and weaknesses, and with more complex fire simulations using real observations. An implementation of the methods is provided as well as an overview of the software package. The paper stresses the importance of scores that can evaluate the dynamics of a simulation, as opposed to methods relying on snapshots of the burned surfaces computed by the model. The two new methods, arrival time agreement and shape agreement, take into account the dynamics of the simulation between observation times. Although no scoring method is able to perfectly synthesise a simulation error in a single number, the analysis of the scores obtained on idealised and real simulations provides insights into the advantages of these methods for the evaluation of fire dynamics.


Filippi, Jean-Baptiste; Mallet, Vivien; Nader, Bahaa. 2014. Representation and evaluation of wildfire propagation simulations. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 23(1): 46-57.

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