Skip to main content
Larry S. Bradshaw, Eugene Petrescu, Isaac C. Grenfell
Year Published:

Cataloging Information

Fire Behavior
Simulation Modeling
Fire Danger Rating
Fire & Climate

NRFSN number: 8424
FRAMES RCS number: 2068
Record updated:

Recently there has been discussion in the National Wildland Fire Coordination Group (NWCG) fire danger and fire weather working teams about the impact of observations from different anemometer heights and more importantly, averaging times, on inputs to fire management systems such as National Fire Danger Rating System (Deeming and others 1977) and the Fire Behavior Prediction System (Andrews 1986, Andrews 2003). The observation standard for the NFDRS is an anemometer 6 meters (20 feet) above vegetation, averaged for 10 minutes. The National Weather Service ASOS standard is a 2-minute average at 10-meters (33 feet). The portable 'Fire RAWS' that support incidents have masts about 1.8 meters (6 feet) above the ground. Their averaging time is generally 2-minutes; however some report both 2- and 10-minute averages. This paper reports on an initial analysis of wind speeds from data collected from 3 anemometers located at 1.8, 6 and 10 meters above the ground on the same mast. Characteristics of the wind speed probability distributions and correlations between the sampling heights and averaging times are presented.


Bradshaw, Larry S.; Petrescu, Eugene; Grenfell, Isaac. 2003. An initial analysis of relationships between 2- and 10-minute averaged winds at 10, 6, and 1.8 meters: implications for fire behavior and danger applications. In: The 5th symposium on fire and forest meteorology, proceedings; 2003 November 16; Boston, MA. : American Meteorological Association.

Access this Document


publication access with no paywall

Check to see if this document is available for free in the USDA Forest Service Treesearch collection of publications. The collection includes peer reviewed publications in scientific journals, books, conference proceedings, and reports produced by Forest Service employees, as well as science synthesis publications and other products from Forest Service Research Stations.